Proving God’s Perfect Will (Deo volente or "DV")

Proving God’s Perfect Will
Robert Wurtz II

And do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, that you may prove what is that good and acceptable and perfect will of God. (Romans 12:2 NKJV)

God’s will is the perfect will simply because it cannot be improved upon. A wise old preacher once said that, “A good wit can dispute and distinguish about the will of God; while an honest, humble heart, that has spiritual senses exercised, and is delivered into the mold of the word (not the world), loves it, and practises it, and has the relish and savour of it.” This was the attitude of the Lord Jesus. His “meat” was to do the will of the Father. (John 4:34) In fact, He employed the food motif first when He stated categorically when talking to Satan, “Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God.” (Matthew 4:4)

Deo volente or “DV” (as it is commonly expressed), is a Latin term that means “God willing.” It reflects back to biblical prohibitions against the sin of presumption. Instead you ought to say, “If the Lord wills, we shall live and do this or that.” (James 4:15 NKJV) James reminds us of the central position of God’s will in the life of a Christian. We don’t even know that tomorrow will come and we must always consciously beware that God is sovereign in all things. That is to say, we acknowledge God’s right to maintain supreme rule in our lives — including matters of life and death.

Diabolic Detours 

Understand that when people are bent on doing their own will  nothing will change their mind. It is useless arguing with them. Human beings have made a life of rebelling against what they know to be God’s will. Moreover, many people (even Christians) will give lip-service to the importance to doing God’s will until that will conflicts with their own. However, the spiritual person not only seeks to prove (rightly discern and obey) God’s will, but will always encourage others to do likewise. This is what James did, “Instead you ought to say, ‘If the Lord wills…” A spiritual person should never (underline the word never) encourage you to disobey what you perceive to be God’s will. If what you are about to do is in compliance with God’s word, and you feel strongly that some certain thing is God’s will, you ought to obey God rather than men. (Acts 5:29) 

But if you have bitter envy and self-seeking in your hearts, do not boast and lie against the truth. This wisdom does not descend from above, but is earthly, sensual, demonic. (James 3:14–15 NKJV)

 
The carnal man generally lives for the moment and fears the future because of that. Satan exploits these traits. As a result, decisions are often made on the basis of carnal factors that are not of God. Moreover, the first question that any Christian should ask before making any decision is, “what is God’s will in this matter?” “What does God’s word teach?” “What is His Spirit leading me to do?” Jesus is pictured with seven eyes in the book of Revelation. This is perfect perception and knowledge. He knows the problem and He knows the solution. He knows the future and he knows what is the mind of God. He understands the workings of God’s will on the earth. Nothings escapes His eyes.Nothing takes Him by surprise. This is why we lean on His understanding and guidance and not our own or others.

Carnality in Decision Making   

The world makes decisions based on their emotions, lusts, pet-peeves, what’s trending, and a host of other things. No person can prove God’s perfect will making decisions on that basis. It is impossible. We cannot approve things that are holy, godly, excellent (Philippians 1:10), etc. when employing substandard criteria for decision making. Christians must be moving in an unbiased — unprejudiced judgment concerning the things of God if they are ever to prove God’s will. God often challenges conventional wisdom with His perfect will. 


Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the disputer of this age? Has not God made foolish the wisdom of this world? (1 Corinthians 1:20 NKJV) Answer: yes! In fact, it is impossible to prove God’s perfect will when employing the methodology of fools. That’s what the wisdom of this world is, foolishness. When we make decisions based upon any other factor than a desire to do God’s perfect will we are moving in foolishness. And there are going to be consequences. A Craig Caster has rightly said, “Man can never improve upon God’s perfect will, only destroy it.” When man gets in the way of God’s will, leaning upon his/her own understanding, the consequence is sure to be disaster. Those who meddle in God’s business are sure to give an account to Him. If you have been guilty of this, don’t delay! Repent and go to the person(s) and confess the sin. Perchance God will forgive the sin and remedy the damage. 


For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written, He taketh the wise in their own craftiness. (1 Corinthians 3:19 KJV emphasis added)


Sometimes it’s hard to do God’s will because of the craftiness (Gk. panourgian) of people who are bent on their own self-will. The religious leaders used craftiness (panourgian) to try to trip Jesus up. He asked them, “Why do you tempt me?” (Luke 20:23) Satan is said to have used craftiness (panourgian) to deceive Eve (2 Cor. 11:2). Paul used the word once again to describe how men use “cunning craftiness” to lie in wait to deceive vulnerable believers. (Eph. 4:13) 


Satan the Scandalon



When Jesus was about to do God’s will and die on the cross for our sins, Peter took Him and rebuked him. (Matthew 16:22) But He turned and said to Peter, “Get behind Me, Satan! You are an offense to Me, for you are not mindful of the things of God, but the things of men.” (Matthew 16:23 NKJV) The Greek word for offense is skandalon. A better translation would be not “thou art an offense” but “thou art in my way!” (Vincent) Peter went from being a “rock” Jesus could use to build the church to Peter the stumbling stone. that is shocking! And it all related to doing or not doing God’s will and how we encourage or discourage folks in that area. He was setting a trap to cause him to miss God’s will. The voice of Satan was in Peter’s mouth at that moment. How can this be? Satan filled Ananias and Sapphira’s heart and he can fill a Christian’s mouth. The human heart can be very deceitful without any help from Satan. (Jer. 17:9) People can be deceitful. Christians can be deceitful. Leaders can be deceitful. Preachers can be deceitful. Believe it or not, even Prophets can be deceitful.

“And he said, “I cannot return with you nor go in with you; neither can I eat bread nor drink water with you in this place. For I have been told by the word of the LORD, “You shall not eat bread nor drink water there, nor return by going the way you came.’ “He said to him, “I too am a prophet as you are, and an angel spoke to me by the word of the LORD, saying, ‘Bring him back with you to your house, that he may eat bread and drink water.’ ” (He was lying to him.)”

(1 Kings 13:16–18 NKJV)

An old prophet used his influence to lie to the man of God. We are not told why. The result was the man of God obeyed the voice of the prophet rather than obeying what he knew was God’s word to him. He had direct orders from God and should have obeyed them. He believed the lie instead and was killed as a result. “The conduct of the old prophet at Bethel appears so strange, that Josephus and the Chaldeans, and most of the Rabbis and the earlier commentators both Catholic and Protestant, have regarded him as a false prophet, who tried to lay a trap for the prophet from Judah, in order to counteract the effect of his prophecy upon the king and the people. But this assumption cannot be reconciled with either the divine revelation which came to him at the table, announcing to the Judaean prophet the punishment of his transgression of the commandment of God, and was so speedily fulfilled (1 Kings 13:20-24); or with the honour which he paid to the dead man after this punishment had fallen upon him, by burying him in his own grave; and still less with his confirmation of his declaration concerning the altar at Bethel (1 Kings 13:29-32).” (Keil and Delitzsch) 

The story is written for our example and is a solemn warning. We are to obey God rather than men — no matter who that man may be. The prophet tried to use his influence just as many deceivers do in our time. Our responsibility is to obey what God has said to us or be prepared to suffer the consequences. It may not always be death by a wild beast, but we can rest assured that there will be some consequence.  

It’s not uncommon for people to withhold their true thoughts and feelings about things when they try to influence you to disobey God. Moreover, they will generally “beguile you” by craftiness — undermining what God has said to you. “Hath God really said?” You will recall that I mentioned earlier that this is what Satan did to Eve. Nor is it uncommon for men to try and manipulate situations to achieve their own will. This is what the lying prophet did. God does not tell us “why” the prophet lied because the “why” is not important. The fact is, the man of God’s first responsibility is to obey God. End of discussion. 


Some deceivers may even sound “spiritual” when they are talking to you. “I too am a prophet…” Some of these charlatans are self-deceived legends in their own minds. They have confused their deluded counsel for the counsel of God. In fact, Paul tells us that God will someday reveal the hidden counsels of the hearts. This means that God will reveal why the prophet lied to his comrade and got him killed. We never know what peoples’ real motivations are. One thing is certain, when people seek to trump God’s will with their own wisdom He will take them in their own craftiness. The sobering thing is, if you obey them rather than God you will suffer with them. And if perchance God’s will has been thwarted by the actions of men, and it seem they have avoided judgment on earth, we have this promise; For nothing is secret that will not be revealed, nor anything hidden that will not be known and come to light. Therefore take heed how you hear. (Luke 8:17–18 NKJV) God is going to deal with everyone and everything that sought to frustrate His will on the earth — regardless of their motives. The fact remains that they put their will in place of God’s, and are to be held accountable for it by Him.  

If someone is challenging God’s will in your life, you are probably in a spiritual battle with the Devil who is trying to challenge God’s plans. That doesnt require special discernment; it’s common sense based on James 3:14-15. A person who is “self-seeking” will utilize earthly strategies and possibly demonic influence to thwart God’s perfect will. In an age where carnality is as rife as it is today among people who purport to be spiritual and even “prophetic”; it behooves us to have a settled attitude that we are going to obey God no matter who challenges it

Cut the people out of your life if necessary and wipe the dust off of your feet if they are bent on thwarting God’s will. Don’t miss God to please people. They are not your friend they are your enemy. I don’t care how many “earthly, sensual, and demonic” arguments they volley into your life — cut them off and obey God. The time would fail to list examples from the Bible of people who were rejected of God because they caved to the pressure of people. No person is worthy of your time who seeks to steer you away from God’s will. Deceivers will not advocate for you on the day of judgment — nor will their treacherous ways pass muster in the court of heaven. Fear the Lord — not men. That is the reasonable thing to do knowing that we are all (at best) just years from the great judgment.  

THY KINGDOM COME


THY KINGDOM COME
Robert Wurtz II
When ye pray, say, Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, as in heaven, so in earth. (Luke 11:2)
The Gospel of Jesus Christ is the Gospel of the Kingdom. It is what John the Baptist preached, Jesus preached and the Apostles preached.[1]The word Kingdom is used in connection with this theme over 100 times in the New Testament. The subject is so pervasive, that one cannot help but notice it continually as you study the scriptures. Yet in modern times, the Kingdom emphasis in evangelism and church life is not nearly as pronounced. We need to ask, what is the Kingdom that was preached in the New Testament, and why is it essential to the Gospel message? We will look to answer these questions and see how they apply in our everyday lives.
As in Heaven
 The LORD Jesus Christ, in setting about to teach the disciples to pray, instructed them in the right way to pray, that is, what theme should be our first priority in prayer; Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, as in heaven, so in earth. The word kingdom can be broken down into two words: king and domain. It is translated from the Greek word basileia with a root basileus that means ‘foundation of power’. We translate basileus typically as king or sovereign. The kingdom of God motif originated with the theocratic kingdom of Israel in the Old Testament. The word theocratic simply means ‘God’s-Rule’. Israel was established in the land and designed to ideally reflect the reality of the heavenly kingdom in which God’s will is carried out absolutely. Israel failed in demonstrating this reality and came under the dominion of many other kingdoms. Jesus wanted the disciples to pray that the Kingdom would come and that God’s will would be carried out on earth as it is in Heaven. This is only possible in places where God Almighty is reigning absolutely as king. That is a very simple start to our subject.  
Overcoming a democratic mindset
One of the challenges we face as we go forward in our study is that most people in the Western World live under some form of democracy. Kingdoms in the biblical sense are not democracies, they are places where a king rules with absolute power and authority. In America we are used to having a voice and a vote, but in a true kingdom- it is the kings will that is done, not the peoples. Transporting ourselves into this type of culture is a very difficult thing to do. 
Have you ever wondered what it would be like to live in a world where the will of God was done as it is in Heaven? What if everyone in the world maintained their base personality, but had a nature like Jesus Christ who in His humanity was utterly submitted to God? He did always those things that He saw His Father doing. He lived by every word that is proceeding from the mouth of God. Unlike Moses that disobeyed God and was not allowed to enter the Promised Land, Jesus Christ utterly sanctified the Lord in the eyes of the people. That is to say, He obeyed God in such a way that God was exalted into His rightful place in the eyes of men. Jesus left no one with the impression that God could be disobeyed or trifled with. This is the primary requirement for any person in the Kingdom of God; we must obey God resolutely. This is why Jesus told the Disciples, That except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven. (Matthew 5:20) In other words, if they were in Heaven with the way they obeyed God- they would have to be cast out as was Satan and His angels. The Pharisees, according to Stephen in Acts 7 did always resist the Holy Ghost as did their fathers. Resisting a king in His kingdom is an invitation for the sword. The religious leaders simply were not qualified to be in the Kingdom of God. They wanted to be obeyed and exalted. They set up their own rules, fences (traditions) around the Law that made the word of God of no effect. This is why John the Baptist preached repentance as a first order. We can’t even talk about going on with God until there is a willingness to come under His authority. 
 
In the Regeneration
It has been nearly 2000 years since Jesus gave this direction to the disciples. Did He mean that we should pray that the Kingdom would come many thousands of years in the future? We know that in the REGENERATION Jesus Christ is going to sit on the throne of His glory. (Matthew 19:28) So there is a sense in which the Kingdom of God is coming eschatologically. This word simply means in the end times. But what about now? The religious leaders were not obeying the King, though they were very religious. As we will learn later, many of the Jews wanted a king that would relieve the oppression of Rome. This is why the disciples asked Jesus this very question Acts 1:6, wanting to know that if He would now restore the Kingdom to Israel. It is obvious that they still did not understand what Jesus and John the Baptist meant when they referred to the Kingdom of God. Jesus said that one has to be Born Again in order to seethe Kingdom of God. (John 3:3) Why? Because they that are still rebellious in Adam are moving in the enemies kingdom. The things of God are foolishness to them because they are spiritually discerned. The disciples and religious leaders believed the Kingdom of God was going to come with observable signs and that Israel would be made to rule the earth in a way similar to the time of King David. One of their primary Messianic concepts was that the Messiah was coming as a conquering king. So when Jesus died on the cross the disciples were totally disillusioned. They were ready to take up swords and call fire from Heaven, but Jesus is telling them to put them away and that he who lives by the sword will die by the sword. Here they had their conquering king, capable of walking on water, healing wounds, creative miracles and raising the dead. Who in a time of war would not want to go into battle with that kind of king at your side? But they had it all wrong. Why? They had a militant understanding of the Kingdom of God. 
Jewish Expectations of a ‘Kingdom’
By the time John the Baptist appears on the scene, the Jews had been suffering terribly as a client state under many oppressors for centuries. These oppressions would serve to forge Messianic concepts during the 400 silent years. The Northern Kingdom of Israel had been carried away to Assyria and subsequently passed into legend. The Babylonians carried off Judah leaving the hopes of a future kingdom in shambles. After they returned under the Persians they still suffered terribly at the hands of oppressors. Alexander the Great then conquered much of the known world passing into Jerusalem where he was shown the book of Daniel where God had already shown Israel that Alexander was coming. Because of this Alexander passed on into Egypt. (ca. 332 BC) This started a huge push towards Hellenization (Greek influence) of the Jews- to the dismay of many of the traditional Jews that desired to retain their Hebraic roots. When Alexander died his kingdom was divided up leaving Israel sandwiched between the Ptolemaic Kingdom based in Egyptin the south and the evil Seleucid empire based in Syriato the north. 
A type of the AntiChrist
When Antiochus IV Epiphanes(ca. 215–164 BC), became ruler of the Seleucid Empire in 175 BC he decided he would install the High Priest of his choice rather than the one God chose. This was met with resistance and eventually serious conflict. Epiphanes, a type of the AntiChrist, raided the Temple and set up the false god Zeus. He then sacrificed a pig and placed the blood in the Holy of Holies as a precursor to the Abomination of Desolation. The Maccabees (a name that means ‘hammer’) were a band of Jewish Freedom Fighters that overthrew the Seleucid’s (ca. 165 BC), rededicated and purged the Temple- setting up the Hasmonian dynasty. Practicing Jews celebrate this event as Hanukkah. They ruled until 63 BC, when the Roman general Pompey captured Jerusalem and subjected Israel to Roman rule. The Hasmonian dynasty officially ended in 37 BC when the Idumean Herod the Great became king of Israel.   
Jesus arrives on the scene
When we get nearer to the time of Jesus, the Romans had been oppressing the people with taxation and other things until a real desire for freedom was born. This desire eventuated in what historians refer to as The Jewish Freedom Movement. It is important that we bring this out now because Jesus was going to preach the Kingdom of God and the Jews were going to pour their concepts and ideas into His words that were totally contrary to what He was saying. As today, people change very slowly. Old concepts die hard. So we need to look at the Jewish Freedom Movement sufficiently to understand the backdrop of what was going on in peoples understanding as Jesus would teach.
Some movements are like rivers that are difficult to trace the source. Rather than embark on a history lesson, I want to first look briefly to a group known as the Galileans.[2] You will recall Jesus speaking of the Galileans that Pilate had mixed their blood with their sacrifices in Luke 13:1-3. Their leader Judas of Galilee was mentioned by Gamaliel in Acts 5:37 as having been killed by the Romans. I suppose we could say that the Galileans ‘evolved’ into what is known as the fourth philosophy in Judaism known as the Zealots. The other three philosophies of Judaism most important in the New Testament period (the time of Christ and shortly there after) were the Pharisees, Sadducee’s and Essenes. The Zealots and similar Jewish Freedom groups were known to be ruthless killers. They believed in taking the kingdom by brute force. However, there was so much dissension within the Zealots as time went on, that it is more accurate to call them a “tendency” or an “ideology” than a “sect.” Before it was over they were at war within themselves. Such is the case with many radical movements. We can generally trace their history from the time of the Galileans (led by Judas of Galilee) until the Zealots fled to Masada and committed suicide in ca. 70AD. According to Josephus’ Antiquities of the Jews 18.3 –18.23 their main doctrine was as follows:
1) Only GOD may be called LORD or ruler (sole rule of God).
2) They had an ‘invincible love of freedom’.
3) The people must cooperate with God for His intervention.
4) They had a deep and bitter resentment of the Roman census.
Disciples confused
The disciples were greatly influenced by the conquering king Messianic concepts. This is why they were so disillusioned and confused when Jesus refused to take up a sword as they had hoped. Again, because this dominated their minds all throughout our Lord’s ministry we read the question, Lord, will you at this time restore again the kingdom to Israel? (Acts 1:6b) He didn’t do it prior to the cross event, so are you going to restore the Kingdom now? Understand that many people even today are primarily focused on Jesus bringing in His Kingdom in some great end-time event. Some even take this as what Jesus was talking about when He stated, When ye pray, say, Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. But it has been nearly 2000 years and it does not stand to reason that Jesus would be having every generation pray for something to come that is so distant in the future. Yes, the Kingdom is coming and praise God for that! But there is another sense that God has in mind that we have to grasp or we will miss the whole point of the New Testament. Jesus said it this way, And when he was demanded of the Pharisees, when the kingdom of God should come, he answered them and said, The kingdom of God does not come with observation: Neither shall they say, Look here! or, look there! for, behold, the kingdom of God is within you. (Luke 17:21-21) 
King in Israel
Although Israel and later the Northern and Southern kingdoms may have had many kings, God always desired to be their King. This is why it is so shocking to know that after the Temple was destroyed in 70 AD that the Pharisees fled to Yavneh (Jamnia) and started a religion on the premise that authority is NOT IN HEAVEN. . These men were so deceived and diabolical, that they actually believed they could overrule God himself. This religion has come down to us as Rabbinic Judaism. But God started His theocratic rule over His people from the Wilderness Tabernacle inside the Throne Room; i.e., the Holy of Holies above the Mercy Seat and Ark of the Covenant. Ron Bailey in his landmark book, The Better Covenant states,
“This would have been the pattern for a desert chieftain; his personal residence would be at the heart of the camp. The residence in this case will be a tent, not unlike the tents of his people but much grander.  It was called The Tabernacle; just a name for a tent. Lots of ceremonies would take place here but at its heart its simple purpose was to be a place where God could ‘dwell’, and that idea is built into one of the Hebrew words which is used to describe this structure; the Mishkan a place to lodge.”
God ruled from the Tabernacle, more or less, until the days of Samuel. We have this sobering event recorded that marked an end for that reality and the beginning of a misguided series of theological notions; Then all the elders of Israel gathered themselves together, and came to Samuel unto Ramah, And said unto him, Behold, thou art old, and thy sons walk not in thy ways: now make us a king to judge us like all the nations. But the thing displeased Samuel, when they said, Give us a king to judge us. And Samuel prayed unto the LORD. And the LORD said unto Samuel, Hearken unto the voice of the people in all that they say unto thee: for they have not rejected thee, but they have rejected me, that I should not reign over them. (1 Samuel 8:4-7) Although God came in a marvelous way to Solomon’s Temple, the stage was now set for the eventual eviction of God as ruler over Israel. They had totally missed God’s intention. He wanted to live among them and rule among them on earth as He did in Heaven, but they would not. This eventuated in the rule not being ‘as in Heaven’ but ‘not in heaven’. 
King in Me?
Between what the Pharisees and the Zealots were teaching there is little surprise that the people were totally confused by exactly what Jesus meant by ‘kingdom’. The Jews, and I dare say even the disciples, wanted Israel to have its boot on the neck of the Gentiles as a reprisal for all of their sufferings. This ‘knock heads and take names’ mentality was so in play that the disciples suggested calling fire down from heaven on the Samaritans. Jesus told them that they knew not what manor of spirit they were of;  For the Son of man is not come to destroy men’s lives, but to save them. And they went to another village. (Luke 9:56) They were obviously not on the same page. 
There is a proverb that states, Wisdom is before him that hath understanding; but the eyes of a fool are in the ends of the earth. (Proverbs 17:24) That is a way of saying that a wise person seeks understanding for themselves that they apply it to themselves, but a fool is always looking someplace else to apply wisdom. In other words, we are not concerned about God being King in us, we want God to be king over everything and everyone else. But it has to start IN me, not in my neighbor or not in our city and government. If the people that are called by God’s name don’t obey Him as King, why should anyone else? Keep in mind what we said earlier, the word kingdom means kings domain. Anywhere that God is reigning as king is God’s domain or ‘kingdom’. Is it starting to make sense now? Is it possible for the Kingdom of God to come now? Certainly it is so long as we understand that man to live a manor of life like unto Jesus that lived by every word that proceeded from the mouth of God? 
Powerless proclamations
When Israel went into Jerico they saw how powerful their God was to bring victory, but the KEY is that they had to obey God absolutely and to the letter. If they would obey God on earth as He is obeyed in Heaven, they would never lose a single soldier in battle. Their enemies would flee before them like scalded dogs. But the moment disobedience comes into the picture and the people no longer obey God as He is obeyed in Heaven, then God refused to drive their enemies out from before them. This is a most powerful truth. This is why James reminds us, Submit yourselves therefore to God. Resist the devil, and he will flee from you. (James 4:7) Submit in the Greek is a military term that means to be subject to or come under the authority of. It is in the aorist ingressive imperative, meaning we must do it in such a way that it is an ongoing reality in our lives. It is not something we do when we want something from God, but something we are in a continual state of. The Devil flees because we are under the authority of God as King. Satan has no place in that environment and can be put to flight speedily. But why should the enemies of God flee when the people called by His name will not obey? We cannot boss the Devil around when we are living in disobedience. In fact, only in as much as we are directed of God can we even live on this earth. We don’t perform our own will, we live like foot-soldiers waiting for orders from the King. Jesus was utterly in subjection to God the Father as His King, so when He declared the word of God to Satan He was moving in the Kingdom of God.  


[1] Matthew 3:2, 4:17, Acts 8:12, 19:8, 28:31, etc.
[2] Martin Hengel in his scholarly dissertation “the Zealots” sheds important light on the historical background of the Gospels through the works of Josephus and others. His focus was the unrest that existed in the area of Galilee and other places. As far as I know, the term “Zealot” is first mentioned in the New Testament Gospels. Simon the “Zealot” was one of Jesus’ disciples. The Zealots were founded by Judas the Galilean and Zadok (Saddok) the priest. Judas of Galilee is mentioned to have been killed by an uprising. (Acts 5:37). The “prototype” of the Zealots was Phinehas (Numbers 25:6-13). The Galileans had a reputation for their rebellion against Rome and had a certain accent that gave them away when they spoke (Mark 14:70).  Many believed  paying tribute to Caesar was paramount to paying him a “tithe” and therefore acknowledging him as deity. That, to them, was a breach of the 1st Commandment. Remember the questions about paying tribute directed towards Jesus? That was part of it. So the Zealots and Galileans hated the publicans that collected taxes for Rome.

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